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Reference/Education Resources

Enhanced F Scale for Tornado Damage

Implemented in Feb. 2007, the Enhanced F Scale for Tornado Damage is the current standard for matching wind speeds with accompanying damage to the environment and man-made structures. Site includes detailed damage charts for a variety of structures from motels to automobile showrooms.

FEMA - Tornado Terms

FEMA terms and definitions for Tornado phenomena.

How Tornadoes Work

This site offers an excellent background of tornados Essays strengthens its video and photo galleries.

Live Science: Tornados

This site offers a comprehensive archive of tornado related news and informational resources. Also includes a textual slideshow of the Top 10 Killer Tornados and photo galleries drawn from photo collections from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

NAOAA Tornado Page

Although tornadoes occur in many parts of the world, these destructive forces of nature are found most frequently in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains during the spring and summer months. In an average year, 800 tornadoes are reported nationwide, resulting in 80 deaths and over 1,500 injuries.

NOAA Statistical Data about Tornadoes

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's statistical page on tornadoes.

NOAA: Severe Weather Facts

Severe weather facts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Oklahoma City Mesonet

The Oklahoma City Mesonet (OKCNET) is an operational network designed to improve atmospheric monitoring across the Oklahoma City metropolitan area by maintaining important partnerships between the Oklahoma Climatological Survey at the University of Oklahoma, the City of Oklahoma City, and the Oklahoma Mesonet.

Original Fujita Tornado Damage Scale

Developed in 1971 by T. Theodore Fujita at the University of Chicago, The Fujita Scale measures the intensity of tornados and the damage they inflict. This site, maintained by NOAA Storm Prediction Center, defines each measure of the scale with photo examples of each.

Storm Chasing FAQ

This a quick-reference summary, which links you to more detailed information about storm chasing and related topics and sites of interest. The intent is to direct visitors to the best storm chasing info available, regardless of whether the source is private, public or commercial. It can also be used before you post a message to newsgroups like WX-TALK or WX-CHASE.

The Fujita Scale

The Enhanced F-scale is a much more precise indicator to assess tornado damage. It classifies F0-F5 damage as calibrated by engineers and meteorologists across 28 different types of damage indicators.

The Weather Channel: Tornado Encyclopedia

Comprehensive presentation of tornado terms and phenomena. Topics include: forecasting tornados, storm chasing, tornado formation and links to tornado research and studies.

Tornado Alley (Wikipedia)

This Wikipedia post offers an excellent overview of "Tornado Alley," the area of the United States in which tornadoes are most frequent.

Tornado Alley (Wikipedia-Photo)

Map of states referred to as "Tornado Alley."

Tornado Alley Definition (Wikipedia)

The most common definition of tornado alley is the location of where the strongest tornadoes occur most frequently. In the United States that location is from northern Texas, northward through western Oklahoma and Kansas, and eastern Colorado and through Nebraska into south-eastern South Dakota, southern Minnesota and western Iowa. Tornadoes are experienced to the east of this region. F5 and EF5 Tornadoes of the United States, however, they do not occur with the frequency as they do in states to the west. This also is the case extending northward into North Dakota and the Canadian Prairies

Tornado History

This page, maintained by The Tornado Project, gathers, compiles, and makes tornado information available to tornado and severe weather enthusiasts, the meteorological community and emergency management officials. Site includes tornado books, posters, and videos.

Tornado Project

Site gathers, compiles, and makes tornado information available to tornado and severe weather enthusiasts, the meteorological community and emergency management officials. This site offers tornado oddities, myths, narratives from experiences, tornado chasing, tornado safety a historical reference of past tornadoes and tornado books, posters, and videos.

U.S. Tornado Climatology

Created by the National Climatic Data Center, this page offers a truly comprehensive, educational presentation on a variety of topics, including Tornado Alley; timing; historical records and trends; state maps; deadliest U.S. tornadoes; special reports and links to additional information.

VORTEX- Field Project

The VORTEX-2 (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment-2, or V2). V2 is a follow up to the VORTEX project of the mid 1990's, which was designed to study how tornadoes form and dissipate.

Where Is Tornado Alley?

Tornado Alley maps vary from source to source. Here is what Tornado Tim Baker thinks. He has been featured on such media as CNN, The Discovery Channel, BBC and The Weather Channel. Photo Galleries included.